Recent Topics

[Today at 03:20:34 AM]

[April 04, 2020, 09:06:40 PM]

[April 04, 2020, 07:09:40 PM]

[April 04, 2020, 05:28:47 PM]

[April 04, 2020, 05:05:33 PM]

[April 02, 2020, 08:09:02 AM]

[April 02, 2020, 06:40:28 AM]

[April 01, 2020, 04:49:21 PM]

[March 31, 2020, 02:53:23 PM]

[March 30, 2020, 02:23:29 PM]

[March 30, 2020, 02:21:13 PM]

[March 29, 2020, 02:49:03 PM]

[March 27, 2020, 04:01:46 PM]

[March 27, 2020, 03:39:22 PM]

[March 27, 2020, 09:06:22 AM]

[March 27, 2020, 08:41:14 AM]

[March 24, 2020, 03:29:39 PM]

[March 21, 2020, 07:13:21 AM]

[March 21, 2020, 06:02:11 AM]

[March 20, 2020, 08:40:16 PM]

[March 20, 2020, 08:28:16 PM]

[March 20, 2020, 08:25:24 PM]

[March 19, 2020, 04:05:40 PM]

[March 19, 2020, 04:05:06 PM]

[March 17, 2020, 09:47:01 PM]

[March 17, 2020, 01:33:06 PM]

[March 17, 2020, 12:49:23 PM]

[March 17, 2020, 11:31:52 AM]

[March 16, 2020, 08:48:58 PM]

[March 16, 2020, 02:45:16 PM]

[March 16, 2020, 07:50:48 AM]

[March 13, 2020, 08:24:31 PM]

[March 13, 2020, 03:12:30 PM]

[March 13, 2020, 10:43:23 AM]

[March 12, 2020, 08:20:20 PM]

[March 12, 2020, 07:01:54 PM]

[March 12, 2020, 12:13:29 PM]

[March 11, 2020, 06:45:27 PM]

[March 11, 2020, 04:30:58 PM]

[March 11, 2020, 01:08:29 AM]

[March 10, 2020, 12:55:04 PM]

[March 09, 2020, 09:00:17 PM]

[March 09, 2020, 12:07:59 PM]

[March 08, 2020, 06:27:55 PM]

[March 08, 2020, 06:05:10 PM]

[March 08, 2020, 02:25:56 PM]

[March 07, 2020, 10:45:36 PM]

[March 07, 2020, 02:35:53 PM]

[March 07, 2020, 01:32:21 PM]

[March 07, 2020, 10:17:13 AM]

Talkbox

2020 Apr 04 16:12:26
Cheav Villa: The heat was 38 degrees in Phnom Penh, and the cloud was covering the sun now _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Apr 04 15:59:44
Cheav Villa: Vandami Bhnate _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Apr 04 15:56:49
Johann: Grundy= step grandson. Best wishes to all from the pleasing cool forest of Thmo Duk.

2020 Apr 04 15:54:52
Johann: Chan Roth’s Grundy came up to lend the device “Moritz likes to contact, lol ta” , well, no idea of how to use anything, so just waiting on any “ pling” and then follow a possible link of what ever media.

2020 Apr 04 15:54:52
Johann: Chan Roth’s Grundy came up to lend the device “Moritz likes to contact, lol ta” , well, no idea of how to use anything, so just waiting on any “ pling” and then follow a possible link of what ever media.

2020 Apr 04 15:39:04
Johann: All forum index, topic content would steady disappear when zoom in: white. Not possilbe to read or even write, Nyom Moriz

2020 Apr 02 06:37:53
Mohan Gnanathilake: Mögen wir einen gesunden und ausgeglichenen Geist gewinnen! Dhamma Grüβe aus Sri Lanka!

2020 Apr 02 06:37:20
Mohan Gnanathilake: May we gain a healthy and balanced mind! Dhamma Greetings from Sri Lanka!

2020 Apr 01 14:38:03
Cheav Villa: Kana Bhante Dukka arises from Touch. Touch of Avijja. _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Apr 01 10:15:36
Moritz: And is it possible to describe more what is wrong in iPhone safari? Is it at least possible to read topics? I can not test anythng for iPhone safari here, without an iPhone. _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Apr 01 10:13:46
Administration: Could Bhante give some details about accounts not properly registered or getting errors?

2020 Apr 01 10:09:46
Moritz: I hope Bhante is able to receive enough almsfood and drinking water in this time of corona fear. I read there will soon be a curfew (people not allowed to go out) for some time). _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Apr 01 10:01:53
Moritz: Account registration and confirmation emails should work. It could be that it lands in the spam folder.

2020 Apr 01 10:01:05
Moritz: Vandami Bhante _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Apr 01 08:53:17
Johann: (Forum and topics to not display proper on iPhone safari, so writing here)

2020 Apr 01 08:51:48
Johann: Some accounts may not be activated proper or the user informed right. There have been errors and needs to be checked. Maybe Nyom Moritz already has back his old strength to look into it.

2020 Apr 01 08:48:36
Johann: Dukkha arises from touch. Touch of Avijja. From nothing else. So may all avoid the bond to foolishness and seek for wise.

2020 Apr 01 08:43:51
Johann: Sadhu

2020 Apr 01 07:21:40
Cheav Villa: Sadhu Sadhu Sadhu _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Apr 01 04:54:03
Khemakumara: May it be a path- and fruitful sila day  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Apr 01 04:51:07
Khemakumara:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ Mudita

2020 Mar 31 13:32:59
Moritz: _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 31 13:21:28
Cheav Villa: Sadhu Sadhu Sadhu  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 31 10:47:26
Johann: Lend device of Nyom Chanroth does not work well for now. Best greetings from the Bodhisatha of Phnom Srong to Bhangra Khemakumara. He’s missed by many, thinking lot on the blessing.

2020 Mar 31 10:25:42
Johann: May all spend a blessed Uppsala today

2020 Mar 31 08:54:28
Mohan Gnanathilake: Mögen wir jemals tolerant sein und das Gute und Schöne in allem sehen! Dhamma Grüβe aus Sri Lanka!

2020 Mar 31 08:54:11
Mohan Gnanathilake: May we ever be tolerant and see the good and beautiful in all! Dhamma Greetings from Sri Lanka!

2020 Mar 27 10:41:10
Mohan Gnanathilake: Mögen wir fest und entschlossen sein und einen eisernen Willen haben! Dhamma Grüβe aus Sri Lanka!

2020 Mar 27 10:40:36
Mohan Gnanathilake: May we be firm and resolute and have an iron will! Dhamma Greetings from Sri Lanka!

2020 Mar 26 20:49:20
Cheav Villa: and they have keep the rule of the Village is safe... I kana also told him that one another foreigner monk already left to the Aural... and he probably walk through the area. _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 26 20:47:32
Moritz: Sadhu, Sadhu, Sadhu _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 26 20:44:17
Cheav Villa: I kana used to talk to the Khmer monk at Wat AngChum who contacted to Akyum with the Police in Korng Pisey District, the monk want to apologize again and again he said he and the Police had no bad will againt Bhante. Because of cannot talk and understand the language...

2020 Mar 26 20:35:58
Cheav Villa: I kana hope that Bhante Johann will be back to Akyum soon. Bhante Johann now might take rest near infront Phnom Srong, where place Bhante had been before. _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 26 20:31:00
Cheav Villa: How is Bhante Well being? _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 26 20:25:58
Khemakumara: Upāsakā Moritz

2020 Mar 26 20:21:38
Khemakumara: Upāsikā

2020 Mar 26 13:43:15
Cheav Villa: Vandami Bhante  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 24 17:31:44
Cheav Villa: May all beings be well and Safe. May they be healed.  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 24 11:24:10
Cheav Villa: Sadhu Sadhu Sadhu _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 24 04:06:52
Khemakumara: May it be a path- and fruitful uposatha day  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 22 10:32:51
Moritz: Vandami Bhante Ariyadhammika _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 22 09:32:05
Cheav Villa: Master Moritz _/\_

2020 Mar 22 09:21:39
Mohan Gnanathilake:   Mögen wir furchtlos vor Gefahren stehen und mutig alle Hindernisse überwinden! Dhamma Grüβe aus Sri Lanka!

2020 Mar 22 09:21:03
Mohan Gnanathilake: May we be fearless in facing dangers and courageously surmount all obstacles! Dhamma Greetings from Sri Lanka!

2020 Mar 22 08:33:26
Moritz: _/\_ Bang Villa

2020 Mar 21 23:08:34
Cheav Villa: May all beings be well and safe. May they be happy. _/\_ _/\_  _/\_

2020 Mar 21 23:08:28
Cheav Villa:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 21 21:33:47
Khemakumara: កតញ្ញូ   kataññū _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 20 20:55:00
Mohan Gnanathilake: Mögen wir jemals ruhig, heiter, gelassen und friedlich sein! Dhamma Grüβe aus Sri Lanka!

2020 Mar 20 20:49:17
Mohan Gnanathilake: May we ever be calm, serene, unruffled and peaceful! Dhamma Greetings from Sri Lanka!

2020 Mar 20 10:38:44
Cheav Villa: May all beings be well and safe. May they be happy. _/\_ _/\_  _/\_

2020 Mar 17 11:24:51
Cheav Villa: Sadhu Sadhu Sadhu _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 17 07:01:04
Johann: And for those celebrating the Sila day today, a blessed undertaking.

2020 Mar 16 08:31:19
Cheav Villa: Sadhu Sadhu Sadhu _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 16 06:12:53
Johann: A Blessed Siladay this day

2020 Mar 15 07:46:18
Johann: Sadhu,sadhu

2020 Mar 14 23:37:16
Mohan Gnanathilake: Das Leben ist durch Unwissenheit, Verlangen und Festhalten bedingt. Das Leben ist wie ein Rad, das sich ohne Anfang umdreht. Dhamma Grüβe aus Sri Lanka!

2020 Mar 14 22:32:02
Mohan Gnanathilake: Life is conditioned by ignorance, craving and clinging. Life is like a wheel, turning around without any beginning. Dhamma Greetings from Sri Lanka!

2020 Mar 13 23:15:35
Cheav Villa: May all be blessed by the Savage Sangha along the way to Akyum Pagoda from tomorrow.  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 13 23:11:28
Cheav Villa: I Kana just tries to breath in and out about 30mins.  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 13 06:47:28
Johann: Sadhu

2020 Mar 12 22:29:59
Cheav Villa: I kana tried about 30mins before bed  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 12 21:23:01
Johann: Leave form, sound, smell, taste and touch, right here and now.

2020 Mar 12 21:07:20
Cheav Villa:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 12 14:46:47
Johann: Every time is the best time to leave home, yes.

2020 Mar 12 13:38:39
Cheav Villa: Kana Bhante _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ Best Time to know the Vipasana course is still Vipasana course, when the real Vipasana has come.  ^-^ _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 12 12:55:07
Johann: Best to make Vipassana when there is no fear of Samsara... *irony*

2020 Mar 12 12:51:48
Johann: Waht about changing the date to one when there is no traffic because their are dying much more people every day...

2020 Mar 12 12:50:27
Johann: Best time when there is no more sickness and death in the world or? Samsara fans.

2020 Mar 12 12:41:57
Cheav Villa: Master Moritz  :) _/\_

2020 Mar 12 12:40:49
Cheav Villa: I kana heard from Bang Puthy, Bhante Indanano wants to change the schedule for Vipasana because of most afraid of spreading Covid_19. :) _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 12 12:36:56
Cheav Villa: I kana also dont like to sit as long for the Vipassana Course. Vipasana in any sitting,  walking, standing..  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 12 12:31:33
Johann: (Don't tell it further: He is terrible afraid that he possible needs to take part on the Vipassana course at Wat Akyum)

2020 Mar 12 12:28:23
Johann: They hold him in what's app Samsara caught. *bling*

2020 Mar 12 12:25:45
Johann: He is to afraid because people always tell anything further, my person guesses. To much watching Devas  :)

2020 Mar 12 12:23:21
Cheav Villa: I kana had heard of Master Moritz wants to go back soon to enjoy the Samsara  ^-^ _/\_ _/\_ _/\_. As I kana know the Samara is everywhere in this worldily.  :D _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 12 12:14:39
Cheav Villa: Vandami Bhante  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 09 20:10:03
Moritz: Bang Villa _/\_

2020 Mar 09 12:35:33
Cheav Villa:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 09 12:02:48
Johann: Not only, also for heavens, but if well done of course (Uposatha was held even before the Buddha as well, Nyom)

2020 Mar 09 11:33:51
Cheav Villa: Kana Bhante  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ Uposatha is for magga and phalas only   :) _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 09 11:31:36
Cheav Villa: Sadhu Sadhu Sadhu _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 09 10:50:08
Johann: A blessed full moon uposatha, maggas and phalas, all.

2020 Mar 08 10:10:28
Cheav Villa: Sadhu Sadhu Sadhu  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 08 08:52:14
Johann: May all observe a blessed full moon Uposatha, those who tend to do it today.

2020 Mar 07 22:47:14
Johann: We includes all wordlings, Nyom. Something that can be changed.

2020 Mar 07 22:45:33
Mohan Gnanathilake: We are susceptible to the worldly conditions (loka-dhamma). Dhamma Greetings from Sri Lanka!

2020 Mar 06 12:03:17
You Y:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_Sadhu Sadhu Sadhu Bhante.

2020 Mar 06 09:37:33
You Y: Bhante Johann,  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ Could you please share me the dhama that I read yesterday?

2020 Mar 05 20:58:15
Moritz: Probably all coming from the messengers (WhatsApp, Telegram), where I just informed a little. :)

2020 Mar 05 20:56:28
Johann: 4 guests already, so nothing to worry, Brah google and his host will follow as long be traceable.

2020 Mar 05 20:52:41
Moritz: Yes, they may come back when the new address is indexed by a search engine.

2020 Mar 05 20:48:50
Johann: Nyom, Nyom. Robots and google may not follow redirects

2020 Mar 05 20:41:44
Cheav Villa: Master Moritz _/\_

2020 Mar 05 20:41:28
Cheav Villa: Vandami Bhante _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 05 20:38:20
Moritz: 0 guests here - unusual sight :-)

2020 Mar 05 20:38:07
Moritz: Bang Villa _/\_

2020 Mar 05 20:38:02
Moritz: Vandami Bhante _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2020 Mar 04 11:49:51
Johann: Nyom

Tipitaka Khmer

 Please feel welcome to join the transcription project of the Tipitaka translation in khmer, and share one of your favorite Sutta or more. Simply click here or visit the Forum: 

Search ATI on ZzE

Zugang zur Einsicht - Schriften aus der Theravada Tradition



Access to Insight / Zugang zur Einsicht: Dhamma-Suche auf mehr als 4000 Webseiten (deutsch / english) - ohne zu googeln, andere Ressourcen zu nehmen, weltliche Verpflichtungen einzugehen. Sie sind für den Zugang zur Einsicht herzlich eingeladen diese Möglichkeit zu nutzen. (Info)

Random Sutta
Random Article
Random Jataka

Zufälliges Sutta
Zufälliger Artikel
Zufälliges Jataka


Arbeits/Work Forum ZzE

"Dhammatalks.org":
[logo dhammatalks.org]
Random Talk
[pic 30]

Dear Visitor!

Herzlich Willkommen auf sangham.net! Welcome to sangham.net!
Ehrenwerter Gast, fühlen sie sich willkommen!

Sie können sich gerne auch unangemeldet an jeder Diskussion beteiligen und eine Antwort posten. Auch ist es Ihnen möglich, ein Post oder ein Thema an die Moderatoren zu melden, sei es nun, um ein Lob auszusprechen oder um zu tadeln. Beides ist willkommen, wenn es gut gemeint und umsichtig ist. Lesen Sie mehr dazu im Beitrag: Melden/Kommentieren von Postings für Gäste
Sie können sich aber auch jederzeit anmelden oder sich via Email einladen und anmelden lassen oder als "Visitor" einloggen, und damit stehen Ihnen noch viel mehr Möglichkeiten frei. Nutzen Sie auch die Möglichkeit einen Segen auszusprechen oder ein Räucherstäbchen anzuzünden und wir freuen uns, wenn Sie sich auch als Besucher kurz vorstellen oder Hallo sagen .
Wir wünschen viel Freude beim Nutzen und Entdecken des Forums mit all seinen nützlichen Möglichkeiten .
 
Wählen Sie Ihre bevorzugte Sprache rechts oben neben dem Suchfenster.

Wähle Sprache / Choose Language / เลือก ภาษา / ជ្រើសយកភាសា: ^ ^
 Venerated Visitor, feel heartily welcome!
You are able to participate in discussions and post even without registration. You are also able to report a post or topic to the moderators, may it be praise or a rebuke. Both is welcome if it is meant with good will and care. Read more about it within the post: Report/comment posts for guests
But you can also register any time or get invited and registered in the way to request via Email , or log in as "Visitor". If you are logged in you will have more additional possibilities. Please feel free to use the possibility to  give a blessing or light an incent stick and we are honored if you introduce yourself or say "Hello" even if you are on a short visit.
We wish you much joy in using and exploring the forum with all its useful possibilities  
Choose your preferred language on the right top corner next to the search window!
[Buddha]

Author Topic: Ownership and Administration of Monasteries  (Read 2669 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline Johann

  • Samanera
  • Very Engaged Member
  • *
  • Sadhu! or +375/-0
  • Gender: Male
  • Date of ordination/Datum der Ordination.: 20140527
Ownership and Administration of Monasteries
« on: February 26, 2013, 03:28:06 AM »
Just saw this skin deep article and it seems it is an issue that is preferred to be kept skin deep.



VINAYA
Ownership and Administration of Monasteries

Ajahn Brahmavamso

    Vinaya is the name for the body of monastic rules and traditions that are binding on every Buddhist monk and nun. The Vinaya was established by the Buddha himself and is now preserved in written form, both in the ancient Indian languages and in English translation.

    With so many new people having come into the Society in the last few years, many of our members and friends know very little about the rules of discipline of the monastic community. It is important for the lay community to have an understanding of these rules to ensure that we do not behave in any way which is offensive to the Sangha nor which could create difficulty for them. We have therefore decided to reprint a series of articles in this and forthcoming newsletters, which were written by Ajahn Brahm a number of years ago.

    Ownership and Administration of Monasteries:

    In the time of the Buddha, when a lay Buddhist offered lands of buildings, or money for such things, to establish a monastery, they would dedicate it to The Sangha of the Four Quarters Present and Yet to Come. The Sangha of the four quarters present and yet to come means ALL properly ordained monks and nuns. This would include all legitimate Buddhist monks and nuns, of all nationalities and sects. Today it would probably include most Chinese Mahayana monks and nuns (bhiksus and bhiksunis) but it would exclude some Tibetan lamas and most Zen roshis, the married ones at least! Thus the owners of the monastery are the worldwide and "timewide" community of monks and nuns.

    The administrators of the monastery were those monks or nuns who lived there. They would meet regularly to make any decisions concerning their monastery and all such decisions had to be unanimous. But there are many rules of Vinaya which restrict what the resident monastics may do, in order to safeguard the monastery from corrupt monks. For example, they can't decide to give Sangha property away (unless it is trifling), nor to divide up the goods among themselves, (then disrobing, selling up, and moving to Majorca!). The community at a monastery is bound to preserve and maintain in good order all Sangha property, holding it in trust for the monastics now and in the future.

    In large monasteries, and some had thousands of monks and nuns, the community would delegate some of its responsibilities to competent monks and nuns. Thus there would be a monk in charge of allocating lodgings, and one in charge of building and maintenance. Ven. Maha Moggalana, one of the Buddha's two chief monk disciples, was perhaps the most effective of the building monks. Once the Buddha commissioned him, with the assistance of 500 monks, to build the grandiose dwelling called the "Migaramatu Pasada" at Savatthi, with funds donated by the foremost female lay disciple Visakha. This monastic dwelling had two stories, each with 500 rooms pinnacled with gold! Because of Ven. Maha Moggalana's psychic powers (they didn't have cranes and bulldozers then) it took only 9 months to complete. It makes our efforts at Bodhinyana look puny.

    In conclusion, in the time of the Buddha, the resident monastic community ran their monastery in every respect, maintaining it in good order for the benefit of all monks and nuns, now and in the future. And monastics did get involved in the building, although only now and again. The famous monasteries in ancient India, such as the Jeta Grove outside of Savatthi where the Buddha spent 19 rains retreats, were owned by the Sangha and run by the monks -- there was no Buddhist Society of Savatthi! Then there was no need.

    Ajahn Brahmavamso
    (BSWA Newsletter, October-December 1995)

source: http://www.budsas.org/ebud/ebsut031.htm


At the first hand it sounds nice and understandable... BUT at this time there was not much reification and no    cadastral register... and so on.
Ownership today means to have responsibilities. Responsibilities which are suddenly linked with income (which leads to the need of founding as well to the natural problem of corruption out of this need/desire).
In countries like Austria or Germany a land and "reality!" owner is confronted with the nearly to whole laws from the very beginning of ownership. That includes aside of the ever existing laws for everyone the whole spectrum of tax and administrative law as well all costumer protecting laws.
Mostly it would be furthermore impossible that monks do work on a building (what ever) if it is a "public" building. It's absolutely impossible to handle such things while keeping vinaya and everybody who tells such things can be regarded as whether cheater or hopeless optimist.
Not to speak that a owner needs to be a juristic person and even if it is a association, there must be a natural person in charge with would make an offering to the Sangha impossible.

It might be that some countries take it easy (even they have also their laws)

From my point of view, there would be only one possibility (like it was in past time) and that would be if the lastly lord of the land would give it without making the other national laws effective. That means it would require the cession of national territory (maybe somehow equal the Vatican) to the Sangha. I am not sure if such a country would be accepted by the many countries but that should not be a hindrance.

Seems to be a hard time to be without ownership but I guess a great possibility to focus on more important issues.

Of course it could be that I do not see some special supplies to a earnest acceptance of today's commons. Would be great if somebody could give such enlightening hints and tips.


This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann

Offline Johann

  • Samanera
  • Very Engaged Member
  • *
  • Sadhu! or +375/-0
  • Gender: Male
  • Date of ordination/Datum der Ordination.: 20140527
Re: Ownership and Administration of Monasteries
« Reply #1 on: September 16, 2013, 12:33:39 PM »
As there is still a broad believe, that monasteries are generally owned by monks (today it get's very clear that it will not be possible any more, since there are less places on earth left, where people rein with sovereignty to give rights and releases for duties a owner would have by law. Monks even get very nervous if they face the fact that they actually violate all that could be violated and fear to be dependent of wise people exclusively) it is very useful to bring up also the hints found in ancient scripts that monks would be always requested to come but never force to occupy and mission. So it is with dwells in internet as well... put who cares if there are right to take what is not given and and a believe that acting in beating against karma is a way out for the well-far of many.

We also find such hints in nearly every sutta reporting about the palce of dwelling. His/here monastery... never (as fare as I could see, and I would wonder and doubt it if there is) there is a monastery mentioned that is owned and actually maintained by monks. How could they? That neither possible nor would it be a real intention of one who stays without dependencies.

Next up in the series on Monastery ownership, two posts based on Gregory Schopen’s essay, ‘The Lay Ownership of Monasteries and the Role of the Monk in Mulasarvastivadin Monasticism’ (Originally published in The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 19.1 (1996) 81-126. I am using the reprinted version, Chapter 8 of Buddhist Monks and Business Matters, University of Hawai’i Press, 2004.) This first essay deals with the inscriptions quoted by Schopen; the next, with the passages from the Mulasarvastivada Vinaya. Schopen emphasizes that this study is purely preliminary and is by no means complete or systematic. Here we present only a brief summary of the evidence he presents; the essay, as always with Schopen’s writings, is nuanced and provocative and well worth the read.

Schopen quotes a number of inscriptions from ancient India, which are seal or inscriptions that record the donation or ownership of a monastery. Most of these suggest that in some sense a lay person is the owner of the monastery. In most of the texts that follow, for the sake of clarity we will keep the Indic term vihara, which we have previously translated as ‘dwelling’. One inscription, a late second or early third century sealing from Intwa, near Jugadh, reads:

    Maharaja-rudrasena-vihare bhiksu-sanghasya

    ‘Of (or for) the community of bhikkhus in the vihara of the Great King Rudrasena

In the Wardak Vase Inscription we find ‘in Vagramarega’s vihara’, where Vagramarega is a layman.

Potsherds from Tor Dherai contain an inscription that reads:

    This hall for providing water is the religious gift of the Shahi Yola-Mira, the owner of the vihara, to the Sangha of the Four Quarters, for the acceptance of the teachers of the Sarvastivada in his own – Yola-Mira the Shahi’s – monastery.

This passage emphasizes the ownership by repeating the name, stating that the monastery is ‘his own’ (svakiya) and calling the lay donor the ‘monastery owner’ (viharasvami). Notice also the use of two distinct ideas for the recipients. On the one hand the hall is for the Sangha of the Four Quarters, as in the early texts; on the other hand, a specific sect, the Sarvastivadins, are mentioned as recipients. Here we are seeing the emergence of sectarianism in ancient India, and one of the critical issues for the sects, the ownership of property. The passage as stands it quite ambiguous: it could be that the monks of the Sarvastivada merely accept the property on behalf of the ‘Sangha of the Four Quarters’, and that it was in fact intended and used for all Sangha. But the tendency is clear enough, that offerings came to be conceived in sectarian terms, and that for practical purposes, property came to be owned not by the Sangha as a whole, but by one or other sect. In another inscription referenced below, the reference to the Sangha of the Four Quarters disappears, and the donation is simply for ‘the teachers of the Dharmaguptakas’.

Incidentally, it seems to me that the term acarya here has no connection to the modern Thai usage of ‘ajahn’ to refer to senior monks, but simply refers to the monks of the school.

Schopen quotes a number of other examples of inscriptions:

    We find it said, for example, that a ‘Bodhisattva image was set up by Amohaasi, the mother of Budharakhita, together with her mother and father, in her own monastery’ (sake vihare); or that… a group of merchants made a gift ‘in their own monastery’ (svake vihare); or that Pusyadata, the daughter of Gunda, an owner of a vihara (viharasvamin) also set up an image in ‘her own monastery’ (svake vihare).

In other inscriptions the lay donor does not seem to own the entire monastery, but one part of it, for example a shrine. For example a lay sister (upasika) named Nagapiya set up a Bodhisattva ‘in her own shrine for the acceptance of the teachers (acarya) of the Dharmaguptaka’.

Schopen gives a number of further examples. Clearly this evidence is sufficient to show that in ancient India it was normal for a monastery to be regarded as, in some sense, the property of a lay donor. The terms used, for example, calling the lay donor the ‘sami‘ or ‘svami‘ are the same as those found in the early Pali sources. What is not clear from these brief examples, or from the Pali passages which we have cited earlier (some of which Schopen discusses), is what exactly this notion of ‘ownership’ entails. Is it a purely symbolic notion, or does the lay donor exert practical influence over the monasteries? If this is the case, then what does it actually mean to say someone ‘owns’ a monastery? It is to these questions we will turn in the next post.

In contrary please investigate the compromises and it's natural drawbacks leading the Sangha into domesticated labors of worldly interests:

It is generally understood that monasteries in Thailand are owned by the Sangha as a whole, and administered by the local Sangha, especially the abbot. The Sangha as a whole here is not the ‘Sangha of the Four Quarters’, but the Sangha as legally recognized under the jurisdiction of Thai law, that is, the ‘Thai Sangha’.

In fact the situation is complex. While in Thailand I stayed in formally recognized monasteries, in hermitages in national parks occupied under an agreement  with the national Parks authorities, and in little places that were in fact likely to be just squats. In some cases the land is originally made over to the monastery from the ‘commons’ owned by the local villagers; in other cases it is purchased from a single owner. The actual title owner of the land may not be clear in every case.

The Thai Sangha Act is not particularly helpful in this regard, and seems to take the question as a matter of course. Probably it is handled largely through custom and the decisions of the central authorities.

Here are some of the relevant statements from the first and the current Thai Sangha Acts. I include some passages from the outdated Act of 1902 as it clarifies some points omitted in the later versions. In particular, it clarifies that the ownership of a monastery is transferred from the (presumably lay) donor to the Sangha. And in the critical question of the election of the abbot, it stipulates that the villagers, local Sangha, a local administrative head should meet together to decide. This is still followed in Thailand. No doubt practice varies, but this is what happened in one Wat Pa Pong branch monastery that I was staying near in Nan, northern Thailand.

For your interest, here is the official text of all three Thai Sangha Acts.
Thai Sangha Act 1902

Quote
    Article 8.

    The authorities of the State are empowered to look after an abandoned monastery, that is to say, one in which there is no Bhikkhu, – together with its estate.

    Article 9.

    Anybody who wishes to build a new monastery is first to apply for Royal permissiom through the following manners:

    (5 legal criteria)

    In case of the unanimous approval on the part of the State District officer and the eccesiastical District Chief with reference to the five points mentioned above, the latter is authorized by Royal Permission to present the documents in order to be sealed by the former. The owner of the land is to transfer its ownership to the order of Sangha before any building process can be started.

    Article 10.

    There is to be an abbot for a monastery. (the King is to choose the abbot of royal monasteries, and may if he wishes appoint other abbots as well.)

    Article 11.

    (Otherwise, if in Bangkok) it shall be the duty of the Rājāgaṇa District Governor where the monastery is situated to summon a meeting of the Bhikkhus together with the lay devotees of that monastery for the sake of selecting the abbot. If the Rājāgaṇa District Governor has decided in favor of any bhikkhu, he (the former) is empowered to issue a certificate appointing the latter to be the abbot. The certificate of appointment shall also be counter-sealed by the Minister of Religious Affairs.

    Article 12

    (Slightly different procedure for monasteries outside of Bangkok)

    Now all abbots, unless they have been already bestowed a higher Ecclesiastical title, shall bear the title of Adhikāra.

    Article 18.

    An appeal against the abbot’s order, in case it is a monastery in Bangkok, can be filed to the Rājāgaṇa District Chief; in case it is one on the province, can be filed to the Ecclesiastical District Chief.

Thai Sangha Act 2505

    Article 32

    Construction, establishment, combination, removal (from one place to another), abrogation, and applying for official recognition of consecrated boundaries (sīmā) shall conform to the ministerial regulations.

    In case of abrogation, the property of the abrogated monastery shall be annexed to the Central Ecclesiastical property.

    Article 33.

    Land both belonging to a monastery and under control of a monastery is of the following categories:

        Monastery Compound. This means the area wherein various structures of a monastery are situated.
        Monastery Estate. This refers to a piece of land belonging to a monastery.
        Monastery revenue estate. This is a piece of land, the rent or other benefits of which is dedicated to the upkeep of a monastery or of the Buddhist order of Saṅgha as a whole.

    Article 34.

    Transference of ownership of the area wherin various structures of a monastery is situated or of a piece of land belonging to a monastery can be accomplished only through an Act. Nobody shall be allowed to file a case against a monastery by right of prescription concerning the property which is either a monastery compound or a monastery estate.

    Article 35.

    Monastery Compund and Monastery Estate are properties that are not subject to any enforcement by the Court of Law.

    Article 36.

    There shall be one abbot for a monastery. However, when it is deemed proper, there can be a vice-abbot or an abbot’s assistant.

    Article 39.

    In case of the absence of an abbot or his disability an acting abbot is to be appointed, with the same governing power and responsibilities as the abbot himself.

    Appointment of an acting abbot is to conform to the principle and procedure determined in the rules of the Council of Elders.

Short stories kindly provided by or beloved dwelling owner and respons(ibility)er Bhante Sujato.

Tell me, how can a beggar be responsible, how can a one "place under disability" be ever responsible? Believe in ownership and clinging is the root of corruption and suffering. And just thousands of cities of bones:

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammā-sambuddhassa

A city made of bones,
plastered over with flesh & blood,
whose hidden treasures are:
pride & contempt, aging & death.

* Johann have moved this topic form "higher virtue" section into the Vihara. SInce I guess it is very needed that laypeople have to prepare the necessaries and its not the case that a social system will take up the own responsibility.
This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann

Tags: